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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ~ TENSE

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Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages.

In fact, the structure of the Present Perfect is very simple. The problems come with the use of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English.

In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Present Perfect tense, as well as the use of for and since, followed by a quiz to check your understanding.

The Present Perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the Present Perfect into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to “think” Present Perfect! You will soon learn to like the Present Perfect tense!

How do we make the Present Perfect tense?

The structure of the Present Perfect is:

subject + auxiliary have + main verb
conjugated in Present Simple
have, has past participle

The auxiliary verb (have) is conjugated in the Present Simple: have, has

The main verb is invariable in past participle form: -ed (or irregular)

For negative sentences we insert not between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

For question sentences, we exchange the subject and the auxiliary verb.

Look at these example sentences with the Present Perfect tense:

subject auxiliary verb main verb
+ I have seen ET.
+ You have eaten mine.
She has not been to Rome.
We have not played football.
? Have you finished?
? Have they done it?

Contraction with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have I’ve
You have You’ve
He has
She has
It has
John has
The car has
He’s
She’s
It’s
John’s
The car’s
We have We’ve
They have They’ve
  • You’ve told me that before.
  • John’s seen Harry Potter.

In negative sentences, we may contract the auxiliary verb and “not”:

  • You haven’t won the contest.
  • She hasn’t heard from him.

He’s or he’s??? Be careful! The ‘s contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and be. For example, “It’s eaten” can mean:

  • It has eaten. (Present Perfect tense, active voice)
  • It is eaten. (Present Simple tense, passive voice)

It is usually clear from the context.

How do we use the Present Perfect tense?

This tense is called the Present Perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present.

We use the Present Perfect to talk about:

  • experience
  • change
  • continuing situation

Present Perfect for experience

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:

have seen an alien.
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
past present future
!!!
The action or state was in the past. In my head, I have a memory now.

Connection with past: the event was in the past
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it

Present Perfect for change

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about a change, or new information:

have bought a car.
past present future
+
Last week I didn’t have a car. Now I have a car.
John has broken his leg.
past present future
+
Yesterday John had a good leg. Now he has a bad leg.
Has the price gone up?
past present future
+
Was the price $1.50 yesterday? Is the price $1.70 today?
The police have arrested the killer.
past present future
+
Yesterday the killer was free. Now he is in prison.

Present Perfect for continuing situation

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a situation (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.

have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara (for)?
past present future
The situation started in the past. It continues up to now. (It will probably continue into the future.)

For and Since with Present Perfect tense

We often use for and since with perfect tenses:

  • We use for to talk about a period of time: five minutes, two weeks, six years
  • We use since to talk about a point in past time: 9 o’clock, 1st January, Monday
for since
a period of time a point in past time
– – – – – – – – – – – – – • – – – – – – – – – –
20 minutes 6.15pm
three days Monday
6 months January
4 years 1994
2 centuries 1800
a long time I left school
ever the beginning of time
etc etc

Look at these example sentences using for and since with the Present Perfect tense:

  • I have been here for twenty minutes.
  • I have been here since 9 o’clock.
  • John hasn’t called for six months.
  • John hasn’t called since February.
  • He has worked in New York for a long time.
  • He has worked in New York since he left school.

Present Perfect Quiz

You can do this grammar quiz. It tests what you learned on the Present Perfect page.

1. Lindsay _____ not been to France.

 has
 is
 have

2. _____ you finished your homework?

 Have
 Has
 Is

3. They___ gone to a rock concert.

 ‘s
 ‘es
 ‘ve

4. _____ you been to Japan?

 Is
 Have
 Has

5. We _____ never eaten Mexican food.

 have
 has
 are

6. Andrea has _____ her umbrella.

 forget
 forgetting
 forgotten

7. _____ the sun come up?

 Was
 Have
 Has

8. The children ________ the lost puppy.

 have find
 is finding
 have found

9. Wiwi’s been a vegetarian _____ three years.

 since
 for
 after

10. I haven’t worked _____ last December.

 since
 for
 by

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