Home ENGLISH LANGUAGE TOPIC 2: WORD FORMATION PROCESSES ~ ENGLISH F5 & F6

TOPIC 2: WORD FORMATION PROCESSES ~ ENGLISH F5 & F6

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(b)  COMPOUNDING

This is the process of words formation whereby two or more lexical morphemes are joined or combined together to form a new single word.

            E.g.   Classroom
Earth quake
Girlfriend
Tea spoon
Table mat
Easy-going
Washing-machine
NB: 

The new words formed as a result of the process of compounding are technique known as compound words or compounds.

Classification of compound words

The compound words are classified basing on two aspects;

  1. i)  The way they are written
    ii) According to the meaning
    i)  The way they are written– Solid/closed compound

These are the compound words that are written without leaving any space or gap between the bases.

            E.g.  Classroom
Teaspoon
Earthquake
Wallpaper
Textbook
Payphone


– Hyphenated compounds

These are the compound words that the written with the hyphen separating the two bases.

E.g. Fire-escape
High-grade
Colour-blind
Brother-in-law
Machine-gun

– Open Compounds

These are the compound words that are written by leaving the space (gap) between the two bases.

E.g.  Sewing machine
Town planning
Tape measure
Baking powder
Washing machine

  1. ii)   According to the meaning

Transparent compounds

These are the compound whose meanings reflect the meaning of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are directly derived or related to the meaning of the separate bases which make them up.

           E.g.  Classroom
Girlfriend
Earthquake
Teaspoon
Washing machine

Opaque Compounds

These are the compounds whose meanings differ from the meanings of separate bases i.e. the compounds whose meanings are not derived or not directly related with the meanings of separate bases which make up

E.g. Honey moon                              wide spread
Daily word                                blue berry
Pass word                                  call right
Sweet heart                                cow boy
Hot cake
Home sick
Sugar mummy
Day dream

Bahrain

These are the compound words whose meanings reflect the physical features or appearance of a person or object being reflected to.

E.g.    Blackboard
White fluid
Block head
Feature weight
Red – eyed

Identification of the compound words

There are three ways of identifying the compound words

  1. Through the entry in the dictionary

i.e. any compound word should occupy its own entry in the dictionary. It should be regarded as an independent word in the dictionary.

E.g. Bedroom

Classroom

National park

  1. Through the word class or category

i.e. Each compound word has its own class different from other word classes of the words constituting the compound

E.g. play boy – Noun

     Play -Verb

     Boy – noun

Madman – noun

Mad – adjective

Man – noun

Colour blind – adjective

Colour – noun

Blind – adjective

Well – known – adjective

Well – adverb

Known – verb

Through the meaning i.e. some words retain their original meaning after the combination but some of the words convey the meaning that are totally different from the meaning of the original word

E.g. Green fly, Sweet heart, Pass word

(c) CONVERSION

This is the process of word formation (derivation process) whereby a base is assigned a new word category (class) without an addition or reduction of any affix. I.e. it is the process whereby a new word is formed by the change of one class into another without the addition or reduction of affix or syllable such as noun into verb adjective – noun and vice – verse

E.g. Love (N) Love is blind.

                 Love (V) I love you.

Walk (N) The walk to Kilimanjaro was fantastic.

Walk (V) We usually walk on foot to school.

Drink (N) We didn’t get any drink at chalinze.

Drink (V) My parents drink beer daily.

Help (N) I need help.

Help (V) I used to help him.

Work (N) My brother has gone to work.

Work (V) They work day and night.

Doubt (N) I did not have any doubt on her.

Doubt (V) I doubt his ability.

Lower (V) May you please lower your voice?

Lower (Adj) He usually speaks in a lower voice.

Ship (N) She traveled by ship.

Ship (V) Slave traders ship travel to America every year.

Poor (N) we need to help the poor.

Poor (Adj) That poor person has been killed.

NB: There some words which change from noun into verb by either voice in the final consonant or by stress shift

(N) Use /just/

(V) Use /just/

Advice (N) I gave him advice.

Advice (V) I advised him.

Object – (N) give me that object.

Object – (V) why do you object?

Conduct – (N) he didn’t show as any good.

Conduct – (V) conduct discussion.

Protest (N) – The protest was between government and student of Dodoma University.

Protest (V) – The groups of women took to the streets to protest against the arrest.

Present (N) Adj – I was present.

      –   He has brought a nice present.

Present (V) – Present your work.

TASK
1. Construct two sentences in each of the following words showing how they can be used in a different word classes without any affixation process
i) Water
ii) Import
iii) Produce
iv) Class
v) Cleaning

  1. Write new sentences by changing each of the words in capital in to noun
  2. What  you PRESENT  to day will automatically affect your future
  3. We except to  PRODUCE enough crops this year because there is enough rain

    III.   The names of evils doers were BLACKLISTED

  1. For the language to develop, it must borrow some vocabularies from other language.

(d) REDUPLICATION

This is the process of word formation where by new words are formed through the repetition of the same or almost the same sounds i.e. It is the process whereby the new word are formed by repeating sound which are either similar or slightly different

E.g.      Hush – hush

            Sing – song

            Tip – top

            Tick – tock

            Ding – dong

            Zig – zag

 Criss – cross

 Poor – poor

 Goody – goody

 See – saw

 Tom – tom

 Bow – Bo

NB: The new words that are formed as a result of reduplication process are known as reduplicative

The reduplication have the following basic uses

  1. To imitate sound

E.g. Ding – dong (sound of the bell)

Ha ha – (sound of laughter)

Bow – bow (dog barking)

Tick – tock (Clock sound)

  1. To make things took more intense than they are.

(To intensify adjectives)

E.g. Tip – top – (top most)

Goody – goody (very good)

  1. To suggest a state of disorder, instability, non-sense

E.g. Niggled – pigged (Un orderly/ mixed up)

Lodge – podge (disorganized)

Wishy – washy (weak)

Locus – pocus (Trickery)

Tick – tacky (cheap an of low quality)

Pool – pool (not working)

  1. To suggest alternative movement of things

          

  1. Minor processes of word information

(e) CLIPPING

This process of word formation whereby one of the syllables are omitted or subtracted from a word and the remaining syllables are regarded as a new word

This occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form which is regarded as a new word.

NB: The removal or emotion of a syllable may take place either at the beginning at the end of the word or both.

(f) BLENDING

This is the process of word formation whereby two or more parts, fragments or elements of two or more different words are put or joined together to form a new.

I.e. it is the process of talking only the beginning part of one word and joining it to (with) the beginning or the end of another word.

Example: 

breakfast + lunch = Bruch

Motorist + hotel =motel

Cellular + telephone = cell phone

Mobile + telephone = mobile

Television + Broad cast = telecast

International + police = Interpol

Transfer + resister = transistor

Information + entertainment = infotainment

Gasoline + alcohol = gas

International + network = internet

Television + marathon = telethon

Motor + pedal = moped

Electronic + mail = email

Smoke + fog = smog

Helicopter + airport = heliport

Parachute + troops = paratroops

Travel + catalogue = travelogue

Binary + Digit = bit

(g) ACRONYM

This is the process of word formation whereby the initial or first letters of different words are put together as a new word.

The words that are formed from the initial letter are technique termed as acronyms.

There are two types of acronyms      

  1. Acronyms pronounced as a sequence of letter

E.g.      C.O.D – cash on delivery

            CID – Criminal Investigation Department

            FBI – Federal bureau

            UN – United Nations

            IPA – International Phonetic Alphabet

            CUF – Civil United Front

            CPU- central processing unit

  1. Acronyms pronounced as words

E.g.     NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization

TANESCO – Tanzania electricity Supply Company

UNO – United Nations Organization

UNESCO – United nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

AIDS – Acquired immune Deficiency and Syndrome

CUF – Civil United Fronts

TANU – Tanganyika African National Union

TAMWA – Tanzania Media Women Association

(h) BACK FORMATION

This is the process of word formation whereby new words are created or formed by the removal of some parts (affixes) from an existing word.

I.e. it is the process whereby a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word of different type (usually a verb)

E.g.    Option = opt

Examination = Examine

Donation = Donate

Worker = Work

Television = Televised

Emotion = Emote

Discussion = Discuss

Action = act


(i)  BORROWING

This is the process of taking over the words from one language and adopting or incorporating into another language. The borrowed words are termed as loan words.

English language has borrowed many words

E.g. alcohol – Arabic

Zebra – Bantu

Safari –  Swahili

Garage – French

Piano – Italian

Chemistry – Arabic

Opera – Italian

Umbrella – Italian

Mosquito – Spanish

Zero – Arabic

Wagon – Dutch

Golf – Dutch

Calvary – Italian

Magazine Arabic

Bazaar – Persia

Boss – Dutch

Tycoon – Japanese

Algebra – Arabic


However other language have borrowed some words from English
(Shirt) English – shati – Swahili
Super market – suupaa – maketto – Japanese
Radio – rajio – Japanese

(j) COINING/ COINAGE

This is the process of word formation by which totally new words are incorporated into the language. This comes as a result of scientific discoveries in which new terms or words are introduced which name the product.

E.g. Aspirin

Website

Black berry

Toss

 Hitachi

Samsung

Internet

Globalization

You – tube


(k) ONOMATOPOEIA

This is the process whereby words are formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animal. The word formed by imitating the natural sounds made by objects or animals are termed as Onomatopoeic or Echo words

E.g. ding – dong (sound of a bell)

      Bomb (explosion)

      Bow bow (dog barking)

Bang (sudden loud noise of something)

Tick – tock – (clock sound)

Cuckoo – (sound of a bird)

 Hah aha –( laughter)

 

Revision Question
1.  Mention the word formation processes involved in the formation of the following words.

  1.    Exaggeration
  2.  Vodacom

iii.   Transistor

  1. Safari
  2. Revlon
  3. Farmer

vii.    Sugarcane

viii.  Leader ship

  1. Book case
  2.   Motel
  3.   Socialist

xii.    Bookcase

xiii.   Prof

xiv.    Samsung

  1. Mini

xvi.    Motorcycle

xvii.  UNO


  1. Make two different sentences for each of the following words.  For each sentence the word has to belong to a different class.
  2. A conflict

(i)    ………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(ii)   …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Abuse

(i)    …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii)   …………………………………………………………………………………………….

iii.  Insult

(i)      ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Narrow

(i)     ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)     ……………………………………………………………………………………………

  1.    Reject

(i)   ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)    …………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Name the word formation processes involved in the formation of the words in brackets
  2. Mwakifulefule had a  (jacket less)  book
  3. Mayasa  (parties)  every Saturday night

      III.  Everybody must fight against (aids)

  1. Mufungwa  has just got a new (car phone)
  2. Kagaruki wants  to be a (footballer)

 
NECTA  2012


1.  Read the following complex sentence and then answer the questions that follow.
Tanzania government has been using teacher in trying to transform education system which was inherited from the colonialism in order to match it with its own new goals, aspirations and concepts of development.
Identify the following from the above given sentence.
a. Five stems
b. From 5 stems in part (a) show the roots
c. 5 derivation morphemes
d. 5 inflectional morpheme

2.  a) Provide the adjectival forms the following words and write one Sentence for all
b)  explain the process involved in the formation of the following groups of words

  1.   Alcohol, boos, piano, zebra
  2.   Loan word, waste basket, water – bird, finger print

                        iii.   Facsimile – fax, cabriolet – cab, advertisement – ad

  1. Telecast, hotel, heliport, brunch
  2. Telecast – television, opt- option, enthuse – enthusiasm, emote – emotion

Answers for question 1 & 2 (necta 2012)

1a.       Government
Education
Colonialism
Aspiration
Development

b.     Govern
Educate
Colony
Spice
Develop

  1. meant
    ion
    ism
    ion
    met
  2. -ing
    -en
    -s
    -ed

  3. a) Breakable
    My pen is breakable.
    b. Measurable
    Ojiki’s thing is measurable
    c.   Mental
    She visited the mental clinic
    d.    Memorable
    Her birthday was a memorable event
    e.    Medical
    She is a medical student
    b)  (i)    Borrowing
    (ii)   Compounding
    (iii)  Clipping
    (iv)   Blending
    (v)    Back formation

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