Home BIOLOGY TOPIC 3: BALANCE OF NATURE ~ BIOLOGY FORM 2

TOPIC 3: BALANCE OF NATURE ~ BIOLOGY FORM 2

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The Natural Environment

The Concept of Natural Environment

Explain the concept of natural environment

Natural environment is made up of all living and non living things that occur naturally on earth. An organism living anywhere in any environment is affected by the things around it such as air, water, animals, plants, microorganism, stones, rock, soil, clouds and the sun. everything around it in fact makes its natural environment. It is important to understand that the environment includes all living things as well as non living things.

IMPORTANT TERMS

Ecology: is the branch of biology that deals with studying interaction of organisms with their environment

Population: is the total number of organisms of the same species living in a certain area. Example the number of frogs in a pond

Community: this refers to the sum of total of all population of different organisms living in a specific called habitat

Habitat: is the specific area where an organism is found and adopted. i.e it is an appropriate for the certain community example an ocean, grassland, and a pond

Ecosystem: refers to a natural unit made up of living and non living things whose interaction

Biotic and A biotic Components of the Environment

Describe biotic and a biotic components of the environment
There are two components of environment,;
  1. Biotic (living things)
  2. A biotic (non living things)
BIOTIC COMPONENT
These are living components in the environment such as animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms. These organisms interact together in number of ways and these ways of interaction include the following;

Competition That organisms must compete for limited resources in struggle for life. For an organism to survive in an ecosystem it must compete with partner for the limited resources.

Predation Is the system in which one organism utilize the other as food. The eater is a predator while the eaten is a prey and a number of predators and preys regulate each other

Symbiotic relationship This is where there is a close relationship or association between organisms this association could take various forms like mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

Adaptation Adaptation has enabled organisms to survive. They may be anatomically structurally physiologically or behavioral. Eg some organisms are poisoners totheir predator while others while others develop warming colouration

ABIOTIC COMPONENTS
These include non living organisms that are found in ecosystem. Example air solar,energy, soil, and nutrients. Generally a biotic components of an ecosystem consist of physical environment and they are as follows.

Climatic factor Several change of climatic condition influence or determine the survival of organisms in ecosystem such condition include temperature, humidity,pressure etc

Aquatic condition Changes in the aquatic environment and the nature of environment it is self determined by the type of organism found in the area such a changes include water current, wave action, salinity, etc

Light condition factor These affect much plant population where photosynthetic process depend on the availability of light.

Soil factor/condition These are also adaphic factors and they include soil texture, soil structure and soil PH

Various Organism in their Natural Environment in the Community
Identify various organism in their natural environment in the community
Activity 1
Identify various organism in their natural environment in the community
The Importance of the Natural Environment
Explain the importance of the natural environment
IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

It is a source of food to organisms

It provides shelter and security for organisms

It allow living and non living things to interact

It provides an appropriate setting for organisms to reproduce and increase in number.

Interactive of Organisms in the Environment

 

Ways in Which Living Organisms Interact with the Non Living Component of the Environment
Identify ways in which living organisms interact with the non living component of the environment
The following are the interaction of organism in the environment

Ground water and water from rain flow into streams and rivers

The stream and rivers flow into lakes and ocean

Water evaporate into the atmosphere from lakes and ocean and from plantsthrough transpiration

The evaporated water precipitates to form water vapor which condenses to form clouds

Wind causes clouds to move for example from above the ocean to above the land

Rain fall and absorbed by plants or form grounds water, and the cycle begins again..

The Interaction of Organisms among Themselves
Explain the interaction of organisms among themselves

INTERACTION AMONG LIVING ORGANISMS

Competition That organisms must compete for limited resources in struggle for life. For an organism to survive in an ecosystem it must compete with partner for the limited resources .EXAMPLE lions and leopards both hunt zebra, and so they are competitors

PredationIs the system in which one organism utilize the other as food. The eater is a predator while the eaten is a prey and a number of predators and preys regulate each other. e,g cats eat mice

SymbiosisThis is where there is a close relationship or association between organismsthis association could take various forms like mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

Mutualism is a relationship where two organisms benefit each other for example the rhizobium bacteria in the root nodules of legumes fix nitrogeninto nitrate to be used by the plant

Adaptation Adaptation has enabled organisms to survive. They may be anatomically structurally physiologically or behavioral. Eg some organisms are poisoners to their predator while others while others develop warming coloration

Commensalism is the interaction that is beneficial to one organism and is neutral to the other organism. For example when a bird builds a hole or a nestin a tree

Parasitism is the association where one organism benefit while the other is harmed. E.g plasmodium that cause malaria to human

Food Chain and Food Web

The Meaning of Food Chain and Food Web
Explain the meaning of food chain and food web
FOOD CHAIN
Is the sequence of living things in which each organism is the food of the next in the sequence.
  1. 1. Grass →Zebra→Lion
  2. Maize plant→grasshopper→frog
FOOD WEB
Is made of interconnecting food chains

 

The Components of a Food Chain and Food Web
Mention the components of a food chain and food web
Producers
Are organism that can manufacture their own food for example green plantsand green bacteria
Primary consumers
They are organisms that feed on producers for example rabbits, buffalo andsheep
Secondary consumer
They are organisms that feed on primary consumer
De-composers

These organisms feed on dead matter and break it down thereby facilitating decomposition. For example bacteria and fungi

The Difference between Food Chain and Food Web
Distinguish food chain from food web

Differences between food chain and food web

Food chain Food web
1. It consists of the single straight pathway through which food energy travels in an ecosystem 1. It consists of a number of interconnectedfood chains through which energy travelsin an ecosystem
2. Usually members of the higher trophic level feed upon a single type of organisms of lower trophic level 2. Usually members of the higher trophiclevel feed upon many organisms of lowertrophic level
3. Isolated or separate food chains increases the instability of the ecosystem 3. Presence of complex food websincreases the stability of the ecosystem
4. It does not have any effect on improving the adaptability and competitiveness of the organisms 4. More complex food webs improves theadaptability and competitiveness of theorganisms

Diagrammatic Representation of a Food Chain and Food Web

Construct a diagrammatic representation of a food chain and food web
Food chain
Food chain example
  1. Grass →cow→human being
  2. Phytoplankton→fish→bird
Food web

 

The Significance of Food Chain and Food Web in Real Life Situation
Explain the significance of food chain and food web in real life situation

The following are the significant of food chain and food web

Food chains and webs help in the flow of energy from producers to consumers and from one trophic level to another, without which energy flow would be impossible.

Food chain studies have had an important role in ecotoxicology studies tracing pathways and biomagnifications of environmental contaminants.

Learning how the food chain works enable us to understand the importance living organisms that make up the food chain and how the ecology is balanced. This is crucial since any interruption in food chain could lead to ecosystem imbalance.

Food chains and webs show the flow of energy through an ecosystem.

Understanding the effect of polluting the natural environment enable us to avoid or control environmental pollution so as to maintain natural ecosystems.

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