Home ADVANCED LEVEL TOPIC 5: REGIONAL FOCAL STUDIES ~ GEOGRAPHY FORM 6

TOPIC 5: REGIONAL FOCAL STUDIES ~ GEOGRAPHY FORM 6

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1. ENVIROMENTAL FRIENDLY TOURISM

Tourism can be regarded as the movement of people away from home to other places of interests for leisure, or pr

Scope of Tourism

Tourism can be regarded as socio cultural and economic activity.

As social cultural enterprise: Tourism involves traveling for the purpose of resting and relaxation, pressure, curiosa

As an economic enterprise: Tourism leads to the earnings of foreign currency through the visitors who come. It als

The money obtained from the tourist industry can be invested in other economic projects for the development of the

Hence tourism is an industry or enterprise which can be used to promote culture, widen the market for local goods,

Types of tourism;

1.Domestic tourism which involves people traveling to places within the country for example from Dar es salaam

2.International tourism which involves people moving from home countries to other countries for leisure or studie

Factors that Encourages the development of Tourism in the country

Physical factors:

Pleasant climatic conditions especially sunny conditions attract tourists from colder countries during winter.

1. Attractive landscape (scenery) due to physical features like mountains, crates, lakes, coastal beaches, canyons

2. Social – cultural factors:

3. Presence of historical and architectural sites for example cities, churches, mosques, temples, palaces and pyram

4. Presence of recreational resorts, swimming places etc.

5. Good social services like shopping centers, medication, good food, water supply, and well trained staff etc.

6. Presence of natural parks like Serengeti, Yellowstone, Yosemite etc

7.Local skills like the Makonde carvings in Tanzania as well as the dressing style and traditional dances among th

Economic Factors:

1. Availability of capital to be invested in the tourist industry.

2. Advancement in transport and communication e.g air transport, road, railway, and water as well as internet serv

3. Political Factors

4.Peace in the country encourages the development in the country since the tourists like visiting the country where

5. .Also the government policy can encourage the development of the tourist industry by financing or giving favora

Importance of Tourism

It provides employment to the people in hotels, guiding section, game parks and traveling agents.

It provides foreign currency to the country, which is being visited.

It can facilitate rapid improvement in technology related to the tourist industry.

It provides opportunity for recreation or enjoyment.

It leads to the introduction of new culture.

Strengthening the international relationship.

It enables the marginal land to be used for economic development rather than staying idle. For example national park

It promotes international respectability of a country. For instance today Switzerland is well known for flourishing tou

Why tourism has increased nowadays?

People have accumulated greater wealth and are of higher standard of living such that they can afford traveling (Gr

There has been a great need for studying other cultures in other countries.

The start of long holidays with pay.

Development of better transport facile is particularly in air words, it can be said that accessibility and mobility hav

Cheaper transport services especially air transport.

The development of attractive national parks in different parts of the world.

Increasing number of active people.

Greater awareness of locations facilities and opportunities through education advertising and the media.

Trend of Tourism at a Global Level

The world tourism by an estimated 7.4 per cent in 2000 its highest growth rate in nearly a decade and almost doub

German tourists continued to be the world second top travelers after the Americans and an estimated 48.4 million

Major problems which are currently scampering the smooth development of tourism in the world include:

The world looming terrorism associated with bombardment of economically strategic centers like the world Trade C

The ongoing crimes against the visitors in different corners of the world have contributed to the decline in tourism i

Environment problems or hazards like floods in Mozambique and stormy winds contribute to the dwindling trend o

The current political conflicts in different countries coupled in what wars like it eh Democratic Republic of Congo,

Poor transport and communication network in the third world countries is another hurdle in the tourist development

Negative Effects of Tourism

Tourism leads to environment degradation like deforestation an erosion; pollution like water pollution and air pollu

It leads to the spread of diseases like AIDS etc.

Tourism needs high capital and hence if there is low capital it cannot develop easily. This discourages the developm

Tourism can accelerate terrorism in the tourist country. The terrorist can come to the country as normal visitors

It can also lead to the deterioration (destruction) of culture in the countries which are visited.

It leads to the occurrence of conflicts in the country due to cultural destruction.

Solution to the Problems;

The visitors should be taught the culture of the natives in the country where they are visiting so that they cannot inte

Reducing the number of visitors who visit the country so as to conserve the environment.

New areas should be opened up to reduce congestion in the existing tourist centers.

The government and international organization should be active enough in supporting and governing the tourist ac

There should be involvement of the local community in order that the local people can benefit and help I conserv

There should be integration of tourist activities with the promotion of the environmental condition through the eco –

ECO-TOURISM (GREEN TOURISM);

It is the terminology which demoted ecological (Eco) aspects combined with tourism activities.

In Principal

Eco-tourism is based on undisturbed natural environments and encourages undertaking of these activities in a non d

Eco-tourism enhances the conservation attitude among the people.

Eco-tourism should strive to improve local communities economically and socially, at the same time conserving the

I should promote positive interaction between the tourist themselves the local community because the benefits of the

It should promote awareness among the local people through education so that they can be able to know the importu

Eco-tourism should also emphasize the proper planning and monitoring of the tourist activities and conservation as

Hence Eco-tourism is a wider concept, which involves several insures like traveling business, economics, attitude an

Importance of Eco-tourism to the Local community;

It leads to the empowerment of the local community since they themselves design, organize the control activities on

It promotes the living standard and respectability of the people. The living standards are promoted through income

The cultural aspect and the environment of the local community are preserved.

The relationship between the local community, the visitors and the conservation is promoted and hence the commun

It helps In the control of diseases like AIDS since the participation of the local community leads to the strikes contr

Eco-tourism promotes environmental awareness among the local people. Through this people can know the potentia

The local community gets new technology through the visitors who came to their conservation areas, Same specia

It also helps in the reaction of water pollution as a result of the watershed management.

The market for locally produced goods like the Makonde carving of Tanzania can be improved.

It stimulates the development of transport and communication system in the local community. In general eco tourism

CASE STUDIES

TOURISM IN KENYA

Factor for fast development of tourism in Kenya

It is magnificently endowed with a lot of fauna and flora which are one of attractions in the country.

It also has very attractive scenery, climate and beaches. There are mountains like Mount Kenya and lakes, which at

The nearness to the coast has also facilitate easy movement of visitors to the country.

Kenya tourist industry in managed more efficiently than any other east Africa country.

There is strong government support on tourism.

Relative political stability that has been prevailing in the country.

Kenya has advertised its industries so widely in the world. There are promotion centers in England, Zambia Switzerl

Industrial base and agricultural prosperity like tea plantation have encouraged the development of tourism in Keny

The knowledge of English speaking countries to come to the country since they can easily understand each other

Development of transport system like road and airways

Attractions (Honey pots) in Kenya

There are several national parks like Tsavo, Meru , Nairobi Amboseli, Mountain Kenya Mount Elgon, Lake Nakuru

There are game reserves like shimba hills Maasai Mara, Marsabit, Buffalo spring etc

These are having a wide variety of animal, plant and birds, which attract visitors into the country

Coastal attractions include fishing grounds, beaches, hotels, swimming areas, cliffs, caves, spits, bars etc.

Attractive scenery made of Great Rift valley, Mount Kenya lakes and rivers, etc.

Development schemes like Galole and Mwea- tebere irrigation schemes, large scale tea plantations in Kericho and

Antiquities and historical sites like the fort Jesus in Mombasa Gedi Ruins in Malindi and other found at Kilaguni

TOURISM IN TANZANIA

Tanzania with its unique features, is one of the famous countries in the world of tourism. Its tourist industry has a b

The government has shown a greater interest in promoting this industry for example the ministry of Natural Res

There are promotion offices in different countries for advertising tourism in Tanzania. For example promotion

It created the tourist industry new promotion logo that is Tanzania the land of Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar and ab

Then Tanzania’s minister for Natural Resources and tourism Mrs. Zakia Hamdani Menghji said “even though beach

There is a wide variety of tourist attraction (honey pots) this ranges from game reserves, national parks, coastal beach

New areas are being established into the southern circuit lake region and coastal areas as well as in the islands of ma

The east African cooperation will act as a dynamo in the promotion of tourism like many other east African countrie

The government stability that has made the country maintain some degree of peace will continue attracting the visit

It is trying to use information Technology in the tourist industry so that the activities should keep on running more e

Local people are being involved and this will promote the status of tourism. Since there will be more participation a

Apart from attracting more tourists especially from Germany, the country is seeking more German investment in furt

Hence, the number of tourists has been increasing year after for example in 1997 tourists visiting Tanzania increased

Tourist Attractions (Honey posts) in Tanzania;

Attractive landscape characterized by the presence of mountains like Kilimanjaro which is snow capped, active volca

The presence of two of the world largest game sanctuaries, the Serengeti & Ngorongoro ecosystem and the sellouts g

Large attractive network of National parks and game reserves covering about 25% of the land area. There are Nation

There are pre historic sites like olduvai (oldupai) George in the Serengeti Plain where visitors get important information

Archeological sites like Isimila, which is 21 km south of Iringa and 800m off the Iringa – Mbeya highway. At isimila

Shifting sand across the Ngorongoro plains is another tourism attraction. The sand shifts at 17 meters per year.

There are coastal attractions like Mangrove plants, fishing, grounds coral reefs, beaches, hotels, islands like mafia

Conducive climate into the mountains (cool) warm coastal climate good for swimming etc.

The national language Kiswahili and the visitors and the local people.

Tanzanian attractive traditional rafts like Makonde wood carvings, the paintings at kondoa irangi and the cultural as

Improved accommodation in the hotels and restaurants as well as lodges.

Peaceful political atmosphere in the country attract tourists.

Improvement in Transport and communication like air, road and water transports.

NATIONAL RESERVES AND GAME RESERVES IN TANZANIA

Tourist Zone in Tanzania can be categorized into the frequently visited and the less frequently visited areas.

The most frequently visited areas include:

The Northern Circuit which includes Serengeti with its lodges like Seronera and Lobo, Ngorongoro conservation are

The southern to eastern circuit which include coastal beaches with white sands, worm water, kunduchi beach, white

Other areas visited in the western zone include Lake Rukwa, Tanganyika, katavi, National Park, Gombe etc and in th

Advantages of Tourism in Tanzania and Kenya;

It has led to the creation of employment opportunities. It has led to the creation of employment opportunities

It has contributed to the generation of the government revenue. For example in 1997 Tanzania earned more than US

It has promoted the living standard of the local people in the respective countries.

It has facilitated the fast development of science and technology as a result of the influence of the visitors who cam

There has been promotion in the standard of hotels and lodges in the tourist centers.

The countries have become well known worldwide through the visitors who come and leave the country with inf

The market for the locally produced goods has been promoted.

Tourism has encourage positive attitude towards environmental conservation since people have realized the poten

It has strengthened international relation with many other countries like Germany, France, Sweden, Finland, Canada

THE WILDLIFE POLICY OF TANZANIA

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism in its vision of the wildlife sector clearly stated as to involve all stakeholders:

To promote involvement of local communities participation in wildlife conservation in and outside protected area

To integrate wildlife conservation with rural development. There are moves to create wildlife management Are

To promote conservation of wildlife and its habitats outside the areas (National parks, Game reserves and Ngorongoro

To transfer the management of wildlife management areas and ensure that they get tangible benefits.

(a) The policy also outlines strategies for integrating wildlife conservation and rural development especially

The Policy for National Parks in Tanzania

The policy states the purpose of the National parks in Tanzania as to ensure optimum levels of revenue and benefit

(a) To facilitate coordination and shared benefits with local communities.

(b) To provide material, services, and facilities for public information and education needed by target groups

The policy also specifies that law enforcement staff should cooperate with local communities around the national parks

Smoking: No one should smoke while on the game drive and camp, the cigarettes should be disposed carefully to a

Feeding: Never feed animals at your hotel or in the wild. It can upset their diet and lead to unnecessary dependence

Liter one should take the litter with him/her as animals can become ill or even die should they digest it.

Hunting: No one is allowed to hunt in the national park without special permission to do so.

People movements: All people should in their vehicle within 200 meters from any game animal. It is prohibited to ge

Camping is permitted only at sites or authorized by the conservator or staff.

Maintaining Biodiversity: No one should pick out or destroy vegetation or remove any object of biological interest,

Fire control: No one should light or cause fire to be lit. After camping be sure to extinguish you fire carefully

All visitors entering the national park must be accompanied by a licensed guide or an official guide

Limitations of Tourist Development in East Africa;

Low capital availability especially Tanzania whose economy is very low.

Problems of transport and communication which is still not well developed in some areas where the roads are impacted

Tourism is a seasonal activity in East Africa unlike Switzerland where it takes place all the year round.

Population encroachment on the existing tourist potentials like national parks, game reserves and sanctuaries. This h

Low managerial or poor managerial skill cause problem in the general management of that tourist center.

There is a problem of political instabilities especially in Uganda as well as terrorism that involved the bombing of A

There has been low advertisement because of low capital, poor communication system as a result of low technolo

Poor quality of services as compared to other country has been discouraging tourism.

Poorly organized hunting in the game reserves affected tourism .

The Loliondo Care in Tanzania;

Loliondo is a good example of the Game Controlled Area where hunting has been taking place. This has been giving

The number of animals has decreased because of hunting making the area less attractive to tourists, It is alleged

What has to be done so as to improve tourism in East Africa?

To re – equip or rehabilitate the existing lodges, and hotels so that they can be of good standard.

There should be more efforts in advertising the tourist industry of East Africa.

There should be comprehensive training given to these who engage themselves in the tourist industry. For example th

More new areas should be opened like coastal areas and lakes already Tanzania has started developing the coastal ar

Massive campaigns should be launched to local people so that they can learn how to appreciate the importance of t

The central government should encourage the development of private tour operators so as to assist in the promotion

There should be control of population so as to avoid people encroachment into the conservation area.

Anti poaching unit should be established in East Africa so as to protect the animals.

Peace and harmony has to be maintained in the east African countries and this scan be facilitate through close coope

The prospects of Tourism in East Africa

The future of tourism in East Africa is promising this is based on the following reasons;

The revival of the African Community will promote the tourism industry in therein. There are efforts wages towards

Same news areas are being opened up especially in the interior and along the coast as well on the islands. These will

There are efforts done in re-equipping the rehabilitation of the existing lodges for example Mwea in Ruwenzori Nat

These have been launched strong campaigns to advertise tourism in East Africa and as well as outside the region

The presence of many attract features in East Africa both natural and man made there are spectacular mountains, wh

The east Africa climate is attractive to the outsiders especially those who came from cold countries in the temperat

he east Africa countries have realized that tourism is another economic sector that helps in solving the problem of u

There different programmers for environmental conservation which will also keep the region very attractive and hea

There has been development in transport and communication east Africa. For example there are airports, telecommu

There is stronger involvement of the local people and the private sector. This will lead to the faster tourist developm

Nonetheless, the achievement in the positive development of tourism in east Africa will depend on fast developmen

TOURISM IN NAMIBIA

Introduction

Namibia is a newly independent country but the tourist sectors have grown very fast within a short time. Incidenta

Factors that have contributed to the tourist Growth in Namibia;

Strong policy on promoting tourist industry. The policy focuses on bringing a definite change by promoting culture b

Well – developed infrastructure has facilitated easy accessibility different places in Namibia.

Advertisement that has been done by the government and the private sector. There are promotion offices Johannesb

There are attractions which included:

(a) Climate endowed with beautiful sunshine.

(b) Abundant wildlife in the game reserves. Like the etosha and Mamili national parks, caprivi, daan and vilj

(c) The presence of attractive grand canyon like the fish river canyon with hot spring resort at Ai – Ais

(d) The Namibia Desert landscape. It also offers a high possibility for stargazing for the astronomers.

(e) There are beautiful rivers.

(f) Diverse cultural attractions like the tradition crafts which include wood carving from the kavango and cap

(g) Variation in the geological and geomorphologic structures has been another attraction to be visitors in Na

(h) There are sand dunes of spectacular nature in the desert these also attract visitor.

(i) The capital town of windsock is another attraction. This is a business hub and has an international confe

The influence of SADS in the promotion of tourism among the member’s countries. In attaining this goal it has crea

The establishment of Namibia stock exchange (NSX) that has attracted foreign investors has been another contrib

The hard work made by both the public sector and private sector the private sector has invested substantially in th

The influence of the of other activities has facilitation the development of tourism in Namibia.

The aim from European countries has also enhanced the tourist development process into the country.

Namibia has a favorable investment potential created by Namibia free market economy and the government c

Importance of Tourism in Namibia;

It has stimulated the further development of infrastructure.

It has contributed to the employment creation in the country.

It has also contributed to Gross Domestic Product. It is the third contributor to GDP after mining and agriculture.

Social services have improved in the Country especially with the introduction of the community based tourism.

It has promoted the move towards environmental conservation in the country with the aim of maintaining the count

It has helped in the preservation and boosting of the country cultural values and norms.

Tourism has earned Namibia an international repute.

It has led to the promotion of the people life in general.

Problems Facing the Development of Tourism in Namibia

Namibia is not yet well marketed since has just attained its independence. It got its independence on 21st March, 1

At the beginning more focus was put on mining agriculture and fishing than tourism.

The costs of maintaining the quality of tourism are high.

It is facing stiff challenge or competition from outside, Hence it has a long way to go.

Lack of service culture and inability to gauge the strength of the market.

There has been slow implementation of the tourist policy since 1994.

The country is young hence its economy is still young. It has not let to the generation of enough capital to be inve

Economic crisis took place in the Far East and Europe in 1994 had negative effects on the tourist development. This

The efforts being done to Promote Tourism to Higher standards

Maintaining peace in the country.

Decentralization of the tourist operation in order to encourage more private investors and the local people to particip

Educating the local people so that they can get involved productively in the environmental conservation.

t has formulated the legislation on waste management and pollution control so as to promote the quality of the envir

here are plans to provide readily available labor, inexpensive electricity easily accessible markets in the neighborin

There are plans to provide readily available labor, inexpensive electricity, easily accessible markets in the neighbor

he future of tourism industry in Namibia depends on political stability and relative peace and tranquility in the count

Tourist Resorts in Namibia

Cape cross seal Reserve, Is known of 23 colonies of cape fur seals which breed along the coast of South Africa an

Caprivi Game Park, which is wedged between Angola and Botswana. It extends from the Okavango River in the we

Doan viljoen Park, which is a weekend retreat for wind hookers as well as relaxing stopover for tourism.

Etosha National Park which is a shallow depression having various games.

Etosha National Park which is a shallow depression having various games.

Fish River canyon which has hot springs resort.

Gross Barmen hot springs Resort is build on the site of one of the earliest mission stations in Namibia.

Hardap Recreation Resort and Game reserve which is situated around the hard pan dam (the largest dam in Nam

Khaudum Game Park which a wide variety of game species.

Mahango game reserve which as a reverie forest, a broad flood plain, magnificent baobabs, large herds of elepha

Mamili, mudumu and namib- naukluft national parks.

Sandwich harbor, skeleton coast park, von bach dam recreation resorts.

TOURISM IN SWITZERLAND

Switzerland is the famous country in the world due to its tourist development. It is also referred to as the playground

Factors Influencing the Development of Swiss Tourist Industry physical Factors

Ideal climate which allows the activities to take place both in winter and summer.

Beautiful scenery made by the Alps. Mountains which have u-shaped valleys, pyramidal peaks and snow cover. The

Its central location in Europe has also led to high accessibility of the country from different directions in Europe an

Human Factor

The transport system has been improved for example the railway network has been electrified. The transport cost is

Availability of H.E.P due to the exploitation of numerous rivers and hanging valley waterfalls.

Good hotel management so as to meet tourist demand.

Capital availability that was invested in the tourist industry, Capital was accumulated from the Swiss foreign tra

Availability of skilled labor. This has led to the efficient running of the tourist industry.

Hospitality of the Swiss people has been another attraction to the tourists.

Its policy of neutrality has made peace dwell in the country and hence tourists have been encouraged to visit the c

It has international institutions like banks and conference centers used by different national because of its peace.

Importance of Tourism in Switzerland

It is the major employer in the country. During the peak season it employs more than 120,000 people. This is six or

It has contributed to the earning of foreign currency in the country. Hence capital is accumulated from tourist indust

It has stimulated the development of science and technology for example electrification of the railway system.

Steep slopes of the mountain have led to problems of transport to different parts of Switzerland. The alps occupy ab

Environmental pollution due to the coming visitors.

Tourist Areas in Switzerland

Summer tourist centers where tourists view snow capped peaks, clear blue sky, lakes cascading waterfalls, sunbath

Swiss resort centers

TOURISM IN THE USA

The USA has a very advanced tourist industry. There are several factor which have let to the advancement of tourism

These include:

The strong government support on the development of the industry the government has formulated the policy, whi

The availability of capital due to the advanced economy of the country. The USA is the leading country in terms of

Well – established transport and communication network in the country. Internet communications has made easy for a

There are many tourist attractions (honey pot) like National parks e.g. Yellowstone, Grand canyon and Yosemite Vo

Strong political stability due to the advanced defuse section in the country.

Variable climatic conditions in USA such that there are areas with warm conditions and other areas with cool cond

Good social services in the lodges, restaurants and hotels have stimulated the last development of tourism in the U

Tourist Attractions (Honey ports) in the USA

There are lakes, which are used for swimming, fishing and viewing like the great salt Lake and Crater Lake Nation

There are spectacular gorges created in the desert areas of California like the grand canyon etc.

There are national parks with a variety of animals like the Yosemite Yellowstone, Red wood national park, Zion na

Spectacular volcanic features like old faithful geysers and hot spring as well as crater lakes. There other impressive

Various centers for sports and game like swimming centers, skiing centers, fishing centers and surfing centers. There

There are monuments like the Dinosaur National Monument.

The countries economy is another attraction to the tourist into the country.

American English language and other social aspects have been a great attraction to different tourist. Some go to Am

There are attractive towns like San Francisco which is the most beautiful city having hills streets coastal setting col

There are good and attractive beaches like aquaria an circus beaches in Florida, Miami coca and palm beach etc mai

There are well made roads and air transport facilities, which facilitate accessibility in different parts of the tourist are

CASE STUDIES IN THE USA

Tourism in California

It’s developed because of good desert climate and forest. The climate allows outdoor sports like skiing and surfing

Everglades National Park

Is a National Park, which is a swamp with a variety of plant and animal communities includes creatures like alligato

Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming)

It was the world first National park and probably the best known it was set up by the US government in 1872 so as

Problems facing Tourism in the USA

Problem of water supply, which affect the arid areas of California and other parts. This has been due to the general c

Terrorism is another problem affecting tourism in USA. For example the destruction that took place o the 11th Septe

Population pressure in the tourist centers has led to land degradation. But strict rule and regulations are being put in

Frequent fires, which affect the national parks, have been a problem. The fire can be as a result of natural causes like

Tourism is getting a great challenge from other countries, which are actively involved, in the development of tourism

Some visitors are attacked by animals like buffaloes when they are viewing them.

Other animals like Elk are shy and hence they attend to run away when the visitors are viewing them. So taking pho

Noise pollution because of the cars causes distress to animals.

Water pollution in the lakes and reviver in another problem faint tourism in USA.

Air pollution that causes the occurrence of smog and acid rains.

solution at the problem;

Limiting the number of cars getting into the parks and establishing free shuttle bus system.

Limiting the number of people into the park.

Strict restriction on smoking to avoid causing fire unnecessarily.

Improvement in the communication system like introduction of arrangements for the visit to the parks.

TOURISM IN MAURITIUS

Mauritius is an island located in the Indian Ocean 200S 570 E on the eastern part of Madagascar Island. It is a very s

Tourism is one of the economic activities and it has growth recently Because of tourism Mauritius

Trend of Tourism

Since 1984 tourism has been increasing as the number of visitors has been increasing and European tourists account

Factors which have stimulated the Development of the tourist Industry in Mauritius

The attractive climate especially to Europeans who come from cold areas and enjoy the warm conditions in the Isla

Heavy investment from different part of the country facilitated the development of tourism in Mauritius. For example

Rapid growth of transport and communication system has made tourism grow fast. For example currently the air lint

The government involvement in tourism has also stimulated the development of tourist industry. The government h

The presence of attraction (honey – posts) like

(a) Beautiful beaches like the one found at le more and coral reefs

(b) Interesting parks like the casela Bird park the crocodile souillac Le val nature park etc which have differ

(c) Trading centers at port Louis which is a chief commerce center.

(d) There are also excellent harbors and an airport at port Louis which provide vital facilities and services fo

(e) Sport center like Big game fishing at Grand bar Deer hunting and fishing in le domain du chasers south o

(f) Museums like Naval museum Robert Edward Hart Museum, postal museum, eureka etc.

(g) Interesting volcanic features like the trout – aux- Cerf crater. The ancient volcano crater towering the tow

(h) Attractive construction old and modern ones like at port louse and the numerous colonial houses at cure

(i) Factories like the tea factor of about 850 hectares of cane land.

(j) Factories like the tea factors of bois cheri and sugar mill at the domain le pailles.

(k) Attractive gardens like vanilla green houses and the Botanical garden of pamplemousses which is famous

Advertisement of Mauritius tourism. Tourism in Mauritius is highly advertised and there are promotion center in Ta

The country political stability has encouraged more and more visitors to come. There is a strong defense force

It has strong amicable relationship with other countries like Britain, France, India and South Africa. These countrie

There is a good banking system and other financial institution has also contributed greatly in the development of tou

Its location makes it very accessible from different parts of the world since there are not substantial physical barrier

Strong determination to develop a quality tourist industry rather than appealing to the mass market. The quality of to

12.Power availability has been another stimulant. There has been established hydroelectric power center called ch

Tourist Resorts in Mauritius

Trou aux Biches – Renowned as the best beach resort in Mauritius for its safe bathing and miles of fine silver sand

Mont choisy – Stretching from Trout aux Birches village Hotel to Mont choosy beach, the longest and most popula

Pointe aux Canonniers – Stretching from the well known cheesy beach to Grand Bay is point aux canonries well k

Grand Bay & Pereybere – The hub of tourist activities in Mauritius Alive all day and all night long with an incre

Calodyne/Grand Gaube – In the north east not for from cap Malheureux, this small fishing village is a quiet resort

Poste Lafayette/Roches Noires – Poste Lafayette is a lovely and peaceful resort the reveals the authentic and un sp

Trou d’Eau Douce – We have included a small hotel on the beautiful beach practically opposite the well known “ile

Point d’Esny/Blue Bay – Righ opposite I’ile aux Aigrettes is Pointe deny, a quiet resort between Mahebourg and B

Souillac – On the southernmost tip of Mauritius, the awesome beauty of giant waves crashing on the souillac rugge

Le Morne – Going west how along the most beautiful part of the coast of Mauritius, through Baie du cap and specta

Riviere Noire/Tamarine – Now going north along the west coast, some 15 minutes drive away, we reach Rivier No

12.Flic en Flac – Still on the west coast, south of port oust is the resort of flic en flac a seaside village quite popular

Luxury beach houses – Frame canonries point to Cap Malheureux in the extreme north, are dozens of beach villas k

Impacts of Tourism in Mauritius

Positive Impacts include:

1.Provision of employment to the people of Mauritius and even from outside, Tourism employs more than

It has greatly encouraged the development of transport and communication systems like roads, airways t

It has led to the rise of individual people and national income since the visitors bring foreign currency.

There has been promotion of educational, medical and power supply services. Some of the institution base

.Environmental awareness has been promoted into country and the government is struggling to improve th

It has earned the country an international repute by being referred to as Exotic Distant Beach or Beach o

It has greatly contributed to the diversification of the economy of the country. The country economy has

Negative Impacts of Tourism

Socially

Tourism has led to the destruction of local culture since the tourists come with their own cultural behavior and impo

Tourism has led to exploitation of the employees since they are paid low wages, which are not commensurate to a lo

Tourism influences the language of the place by introducing new and abusive works

It facilitates the spread of diseases causing deaths. For example through sexual relationships HIV/AIDS spreads ver

Environmentally

With the fast development of tourist centers there is an increasing problem of water and beach pollution

The coral reefs are begin damaged due to water pollution and breaking them for ornaments

Pollution has led to the coast and coral rock. Now the polluters are being fined and environmental educa

Construction along the coast has led to the destruction of the forest since people have been clearing to es

Economically

It will lead to the decline of agriculture since most people will go to the tourist centers to seek jobs

The loans the country is getting from the world Bank, IMF and other financial organizations will make the countr

Problems Facing Tourism in Mauritius

The services in the hotels are not such much up to standard since the personnel were not well trained and the gover

There are a lot of expenses in running the tourist activities and the government insistence of lowering the prices i

Environmental degradation due to the development of tourist activities and denudation of the volcanic features by run

Too many tourists flooding into the country due to low costs and hence the number of people becoming unmanag

Emergency of informal and Bungalows will lead to poor standards of services. The government has to control and f

There has been tension between France and Mauritius over Trammeling Island, which Mauritius wants to take from

TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA

Tourism has become another important economic sector in the country it has been expanding s the number of visi

The government has a vehement plan to make south Africa one of the competitive tourist countries in the world. S

Factors that Led to the Development of Tourism in South Africa;

Presence of a variety of attraction.

Museums like the Municipal museum (King George VI art Gallery in port Elizabeth which displays British, Sou

There are libraries like Johannesburg public Library, southern African Library in cape Town, University libraries

Good hotels and restaurants with charming personnel like wild Board Traditional restaurant that offers traditiona

Musical theaters like those at Grahams town and port Elizabeth that present the contemporary dances.

Sports center crickets yards golf yards outdoor sport centers like swimming pools sight viewing centers rugby ten

There are parks and game reserves. National parks are like the pilnesberg National parks, which is on the old exti

Attractive relief features like raters, Drakensberg and beaches.

Historical sites like the archeological site at Taung Heirtage site where the Tang child skull was discovered by Pr

There are attractive towns like Pretoria and Johannesburg with museums, restaurants, hotels monuments and the

Knowledgeable friendly and accredited local guide that gives a captivating company to the visitors.

Different activities like fishing mining and agriculture like sheep farming and viticulture and hunting.

Attractive environment in some place like Mafeking, which is free of Malaria.

Involvement of the local community in the wild life conservation management of hunting resource protection

The end of sanctions in 1994 made South Africa get a wide market outside after participating in different exhib

Good coordination under the South Africa Tourism agency, which is governed by South Africa Tourism Board.

The government involvement is another factor that has stimulated the development of tourism. For example Pres

Advertisement: South Africa Tourism is highly advertised. There are promotion offices in London Frankfurt, Ne

There are good health and medical services although they are paid for.

Advanced transport and communication is another stimulant factor South Africa has a denser transport network c

The fall in the value of Rand attracted more tourist to come especially in 1996.

Contribution of Tourism in the Development of South Africa;

It has led to the creation of employment opportunities for both local people and those from other countries. Employm

It has also contributed to the generation of revenue. The revenue has been increasing, for example in 1944 the reven

The market for local commodities has expanded. The tourists are buying traditional food and other artistic goods in b

It has also promoted environmental awareness among the people. The local communities are so much involved in t

Transport and communication systems have been promoted in the country.

There has been fast advancement in science and technology as a result of the coming of the tourists. Mist of the tour

It has enhanced the promotion of culture in the country especially the rational practices, which are taking place in So

Soweto: There are traditional dances, handcraft goods etc

Limiting Factors Facing Tourism in South Africa

Some places have problems of Bilharzias especially in the Eastern and Northern regions; others are affected by Mala

There are problems of crimes, political unrest and other nasty activities. This has made the government to put precoup

Terrorism that has hit the whole world is another limitation. This has made air transport to be feared by many peop

Water supply is another problem. This is because of the fact the South Africa has little rainfall and the water available

Air pollution due to open fires for cooking, heating and production of energy from coal fires power station, which pr

The western part of the country is not well accessible due to poor transport and communication. But the government

Power is another problem due to the fluctuation of the volume of river and substantial absence of oil deposits. Much

The problem of AIDS has a great threat to the development of tourism. AIDS has become a great problem in South A

There high costs involved in educating people on the need to conserve the natural environment with a focus on prom

The coastal strip of South Africa is too narrow and this has been a greater limitation to the development tourist reso

There is a problem of over population in the Bantustans, which have led to intensive settlement, fuel cutting and ove

The Lessons to Learn from South African tourism

Involving the local people leads to smooth running at the programmers like nature conservation which is very impo

The policies should be clear and encouraging different types of investors to invest in tourism including the local peo

Tourism needs strong and extensive advertisement so that people in other parts of the world can know where the cou

The personnel involved in the running of the tourist industry should be well experienced, charming and conversant w

Tourism is a good approach towards solving the problems of unemployment and one way of diversifying the country

Despite that the East Africa is well endowed with various and interesting tourist potential is not well developed com

Population encroachment on the existing tourist potentials e.g. national Parks game reserves and sanctuaries. This i

There is a sever lack of capital to invest in the industry. This is because the East African countries economies depend

Lack of proper managerial skills required in the managements of a tourist industry. The tourist industry is very sen

There is a problem of political instabilities especially in Uganda and of recent terrorism in Tanzania and Kenya that

There is low degree of advertisement of the tourism industry potentials to the outside world. This has been facilitate

GUIDING QUESTIONS

1. Outline the factors that encourage the development of tourist any country

2. Tourism has grown fast now a day give three reasons in short

3. What is the importance of tourism in any country?

4. Show the negative effects of tourism in Tanzania.

5. Identify the actors which have led to the great development of tourist industry in Switzerland.

6. Mention three winter tourist centers and two summer tourist centers in Switzerland.

7. Show the importance of eco tourism to the local community in Tanzania

8. Why should the local people be involved in the tourist activities (Give four reasons).

9. Outline the problems facing tourism in East Africa.

10. Identify the negative effects of population growth on the tourist industry.

11. How does tourism differ from other industries?

(a) It is an invisible industry, It involves serves and not machines that can be seen

(b) It is a very sensitive industry to unfavorable political social and environmental change

(c) It is largely a leisure industry

(d) It is so seasons

12. How can Tanzania improve tourist industry? (at least six points).

13. Why do we say that tourism in Tanzania has a bright future? (Give three reasons).

14. Tourism in USA is very advanced, why? (give six major reasons).

15. Outline five problems facing tourist industry in USA.

16.Show six rules and regulation (Guidelines) provided

17. Draw the map of Tanzania to show the location of the game reserves and national park in Tanzania.

18. Mentionable the tourist attractions (honey pots) in USA.

19. How can the conflicts in the national parks be solved?

(a) By demarcating the conservation areas and the residential areas.

(b) By involving the local people in the nature conservation area and hence they can be responsible in helpin

(c) The local people should be approached as equal partners and not as people of low standard in the comm

(d) The benefits obtained from the national parks should be shared with the local community.

(e) New routes should be established and the national parks should be fenced if possible.

(f) There should be comprehensive training of the local people so that they can learn to appreciate potential

(g) There should be clearly stated policies on tourist governing tourist activities.

REGIONAL FOCAL STUDIES

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is the branch of science which deals with crop cultivation and animal keeping. It is categorised as a primary activity since it involves the production of raw materials that can be used by other industries.

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2. SUSTAINABLE USE OF FORESTS

Forest refers to an extensive area of land which is mostly covered by trees of different sizes and species. Or a forest is a dense growth of trees, plants and undergrowth covering a large area of land. Forests can be natural or man-made (planted)/ Artificial forest

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3. SUSTAINABLE MINING

Meaning of some common terms:

Mining Is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials which form the package of economic interest to the miners.

Mines; Are places where Minerals are obtained or are the places where minerals are extracted.

Minerals; Substances with constant chemical composition which are formed naturally in the earth’s crust or Is the chemical composition of two or more elements within the earth’s crust.

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4. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Manufacturing industry refers to the industry which involves processing and changing the materials in order to make new products of greater value to man. Manufacturing industries are also referred to as secondary industries.

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5. TOURISM

Tourism refers to the travel of people away from home to other place for recreation, leisure, religious, family, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism involves visiting places of interest like wildlife, beaches, museums etc,

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6. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

Transport can be defined as the movement of people, animals, goods or services from one place to another. It provides a link between different parts of the country, region or world. People move from one place to another, either permanently or temporarily for various reasons. Main Types of Transport Main Types of Transport System at Global and East African Level

Types or modes of transport refer to the means by which people, goods, animals or services are moved from one location to another.

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7. WATER MANAGEMENT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Water Is a colorless, odorless and tasteless liquid found naturally on land surface, atmosphere and water ground reservoirs, and essential for most plant and animal life. Water management Refers to the skillful and careful use and control of water and water resources.

It is the management of water resources under set policies and regulations. Water should be managed since it is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and over uses.

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8. SUSTAINABLE USE OF POWER AND ENERGY RESOURCES

Energy Energy is the capacity for doing work. Or the power required on carrying out activity. Power Is the rate of doing work. Or the rate of using energy. You must have energy to accomplish work. Therefore, you need energy to produce power. Without energy there is no power that can be produced.

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